This type of taxa had a brother experience of the Cygnus types assemblage

This type of taxa had a brother experience of the Cygnus types assemblage

Mitogenome phylogeny

This new mitochondrial succession try a commonly used unit ong pets 35 . In the modern study, to further elucidate new phylogenetic interrelationships in this Anatidae, concatenated nucleotide sequences away from 13 PCGs as well as 2 rRNA genetics have been obtained from 37 Anatidae aves, about the four Aythya varieties, one to Netta species, you to definitely Asarcornis variety, you to Mareca variety, 7 Anas species, about three Mergus kinds, you to definitely Lophodytes variety, around three Bucephala species, one Cairina variety, you to Aix types, one or two Tadorna types, four Cygnus varieties, you to Branta variety, four Anser types, and another Dendrocygna species.

In the newest Bayesian inference (BI) and you catholicmatch hookup will restriction probability (ML) analyses, the fresh phylogenetic woods got almost the same topologies (Fig. seven, Supplementary Figs. step one and you will dos). One another trees in the one or two analyses were supported by good mathematical viewpoints. As a whole, the latest genera Aythya, Netta, Asarcornis, Anas, Mareca, Mergus, Lophodytes, Bucephala, Cairina, Tadorna, and you will Aix clustered within the subfamily Anatinae, while the latest subfamily Anserinae had a cousin reference to Anatinae, in addition to Cygnus, Branta, and you can Anser. Dendrocygna javanica, whoever erect present, elongated shoulder and you will base, and you will conspicuous perching-tree behavior distinguish it off most other Anseriformes types, diverged earlier regarding the head origin and you will is short for an aunt clade to Anatinae-Anserinae thirty-six . Our topology was extremely similar to the result of training built to the research out of concatenated mitochondrial nucleotide sequences away from ND2 and you can Cytb family genes, also which have morphological studies thirty-six,37,38 .

Molecular phylogenetic research of 37 Anatidae variety created by MrBayes and you can IQ tree. Number next to the nodes show rear odds (left) and bootstrap viewpoints (right).

In this Anserinae, species of the brand new genus Anser is actually related to Branta canadensis directly. This is in accordance with earlier in the day morphology-centered analyses 39 . The difficulty is much more cutting-edge towards huge subfamily Anatinae. Within subfamily, i discovered four consistent clades: Aythyini (Aythya + Netta + Asarcornis), Anatini (Anas + Mareca), Mergini (Mergus + Lophodytes + Bucephala), and Cairinini (Cairina + Aix + Tadorna). Cairinini was this new cousin set of every other Anatinae tribes, which was firmly supported by the results of introduce study. About Anatinae people, Anatini and Aythyini has nearer phylogenetic matchmaking, and these email address details are supported by morphological knowledge and you will phylogenetic research according to several PCGs 37,38 . For the genus Aythya, An excellent. americana and you will A good. ferina have been clustered and additionally well-served thinking. Meanwhile, A good. fuligula additionally the clade (Good. americana + A beneficial. ferina) formed a top-served worth department. The target kinds, An effective. baeri, plus the clade (A good. fuligula + (An effective. americana + Good. ferina)) was in fact clustered on the you to branch, suggesting the new five types mode a great monophyletic category.


The present day study considering the fresh new mitogenome away from A good. baeri (sixteen,623 bp, accession count MT129533). It circular mtDNA incorporated 13 PCGs, a few rRNAs, twenty-two tRNAs, plus one CR. As a consequence of review, it absolutely was found that brand new genome off A good. baeri shown characteristic sequence formations and you may are slightly like the individuals out-of Aythya aves. Among PCGs, ND3 encountered the very polymorphism and large genetic length. The phylogenetic investigation centered on shared mitochondrial gene place (thirteen PCGs as well as 2 rRNAs) off 37 Anatidae kinds playing with BI and ML formulas indicated that A good. baeri is actually directly associated with A good. fuligula, A beneficial. americana, and you can A beneficial. ferina. Actually, i deduced why these variety was in fact monophyletic. Also, all genera which several variety was basically learned were and additionally seen to be monophyletic apart from Anas, given that one included Mareca. Today’s analysis will bring a significant site on preservation regarding new examined vitally endangered variety as well as valuable advice getting further phylogenetic and you may evolutionary research for the family members Anatidae.